The word Jain is derived from the Sanskrit word (ftu) Jin, meaning a Victor, and implies a conqueror of one’s baser-self, or One Who has attained a victory over attachments and aversions. A true Jain is, thus, a follower of Him, who is above bias, a true friend of all and the foe of none.

In the days gone by the saintly adherents of this religion were variously known as Yatis, Vratyas, Arhatas, Nirgranthas and Shramanas, while the Greeks and other foreigners called them Gymnosophists or the nude philosophers.

Jainism is a science and not a code of arbitrary and capricious commandments. It is the only non-allegorical religion, which insists upon and displays a thorough understanding of the problems of life and soul. It was founded by Omniscient Teachers, a distinction to which no other religion can lay claim.

Jainism is the only man made religion that reduces everything to the iron-laws of nature and agrees with modern science. It is perfectly true when the Jains say that religion originated with man and that the first Deified man of every cycle of time is the founder of Religion. Whenever a Tirthankara arises He re-establishes the Scientific truth considering the nature of life and these truths are collectively termed religion.


Origin: Jainism, as belived by its followers, was not originated by any particular individual in the same sense as Christ and Mohammed orinated Christnity and Mohammedanism, and Budha was the author of Budhism. Had any individual Mahavira or His predecessors Parshwa or, even Rsabha started this religion, it would have been known as Mhavira Dharma, or Rsabha Dharma. The religion is instead name Jain Dharma. In the pats there were infinite twenty four Thirthankaras and in future also infinite twenty four Tirthankaras will appear. In the present cycle of time, the religion preached by Tirthankara, Rsabha, who is also known as Adinath. The prevalent view that Jaininsm was organized by Mahavira, or even His predecessors Parshwa, in erroneous.

Religion,it should be known, “ way of life” which is not invented, it is rediscovered and this was what precisely the tirthankaras did. They explained the laws of Nature that governed the universe, man his conduct.


His age. it is impossible to say anything about His age. All that can be said is that He flourished very very far back in the hoariest of hoary antiquity- just a time than the first clouds formed in the sky. The mere fact that we are unable to fix any date of His being does not, however, entitle us to assert that He was not a real person, but simply a figment of Jain imagination. This is because we have an unimpeachable evidence of His name being mentioned in the oldest of known books, the Vedas.

Here are a few references to Rsabha in Rigveda

rL; g;% iqjh"k lqjfHk lksxU/~; ok;qLra ns'ka n'k A ;kstua learkr lqjfHk pdkj AA34AA

Skanda V Adhyaya 5th.

Shri Rsabha Deva performed such hard penance that he got various Riddhis like good smell of his body upto 40 kosas.

various Riddhis like good smell of his body upto 40 kosas.
fuR;kuqHkwr fut ykHk fuo`r r`".kk%
Js;L; r}pu;k fpj lqIr cqn~/s% A
yksdL; d:.kk Hk;elRe yksd A

ek[okUueks Hkxors _"kHkk; rLeS AA 19AA

Skanda V Adhyaya 6th.

Here people are advised to bow and to pay homage to Rsabha deva with devotion and declares Rsabha Deva to be Avatara or incarnation, of Vishnu Bhagwana.

lR; n;k ri%'kkspa frfr{ks{kkekne% vfgalk czgep;Z p R;kx% Lo?;k; vktZoe~ AA8AA larks"k%len`d lsok xzkE;s gks ije 'kuS% u`.kka foi;; {ksek ekSus ukRe foHk'kZue~ AA9AA vUuk|kns% lfoHkkxks Hkwr;---p ;FkfgZrAA

Skanda VII Adhyaya XI.

Here there is an advice to adopt truth, Ahimsa, tap, purity of heart, unattachement and self control etc. as preached by Arhant ( Jain Tirthankara).
Astaka 5, Adhaya 1, Varga22 of Rigveda indicates that one who worships Rsabha Deva with devotion must get Lakshmi.

lfen~/L; izesglks----;Xus cUns rofJ;e~
o`"kHkks |Euck vfl le/~ojsf"o/~;ls AA4AA

Mandal 1, Sukta 190, Mantar 1, of Rigveda mentions Rsabha to be sweet worded, most learned and worshipful:

vuokZ.ka c`"kHkaeUnz ftg~oa o`gfLra jo/Z;k uO;edsZ
&&&&_0 ea0 1 lq0 190 ea0 1

Mandal2, Sukta 33, Mantra 15, of Rigveda informs that Rsabha got full, complete, infinite, supreme, unobstructed, un-abating, all-seeing, all-knowing knowledge:

,oa oHkzks o`"kHk psfdrku ;Fkk nso u g`.khls u gaflA
&&&_0 2AA33AA 13

Mandal 6, Sukra1, Mantra 8, of Rigveda states Rigveda to be care-taker of the world, all-seeing, all-knowing and all-blessing:

fo'kka dfoa foz'kifr 'k'orhuka furks'ka _"kHka p"kZ.khuke~
&&&_0 ea0 6A1A81

Astaka 4, Adhaya6, Varg 8 of Rigveda establishes that Rsabha gives infinite knowledge’ power and bliss:

e:RoUr o`"kHk oko`/kued okfja fnO;a 'kklufeUnze~A

fo'oklkgeols uwruk;ksxza lgksnkfeg ra gqose~ AA11AA

Mandal 10, Sukta 187 advises for the prayer and worship of Rsabha:

izkXus; okehj; o`"kok;A
&&&&_0 ea0 10 lw0 187

Astaka 8, Adhaya 8, Varg 24, of Rigveda tells that the prayer and worship of Rsabha destroys all pains, sufferings, ignorance and enemies:

_"kHk eka lekukuk liRukuka fo"kklfge~ gUrkja 'k=kqq.kka d`f/k fojkta xksifra xoke~ A1A

Translation: O Rudra like Divinity! Do you produce amongst us, high descent, a Great God, like Rsabha Deva, by becoming Arhant which is the epithet of the First World Teacher let Him become the destroyer of the enemies.

^_"kHka eklekukuka liRuka fo"kk lfga
gUrkja 'k=kq.kka d`f/k fojkta xksfira xoke~ ^
_Xosn 10&15&166

Prof. Viru Paksh Vadyar, M.A., Ved Ratna, Professor of Saanskrit College, Madra, holds the view that Rsabha deva of whom mention is made in Rigveda, is no other than the founder of Jaininsm. The translation given above is his. ( Vide Jain Patah Pradarsak, Vol III, Page6 ).

This view is by Shri Vinoba Bhave, the cultural successor of Gandhiji and agreat scholar of Hinduism, in a letter Dated 28-03-1948 written by him to the Jain of Seoni. He points out that:

“Jainism exists from very ancient times since its reference is found in the Vedas like the following mantras:

vgZu~ bne~ n;lsfoJ lEne~A

which is addressed to Lord Arhant the Jain God who protects the vast world”.

Rsabha in Athurveda. This is not all, In Athur Veda we read.

vkEgkseqp o`"kHka ;fK;kuka fojktUrs izFke e/o'k.ke~ A vikuuirefj cuk gscf/k; Kkusn;Z.ka bfUnz;a nÙk ekt%

Kand 19, Sukta 42, Mantra 4, which fully supported the view that Rsabha, Who is absolutely free from all sins, is the first king of the followers of Ahimsa.
Again in Athurveda, Cahpter XV, we read:
“For a whole year, he stood erect. The Gods said unto him, why standst thou O Vartya*? He answered and said, “Let them bring my couch.** They brought the couch for that Vartya***….. The Vartya ascended the couch. The bosts of Gods were his attendants, solemn vows his messengers, and all creatures his worshipers……..”
Griffith in his translation of Athurveda (See P. 199 Vol II) has the following note on the legend.

*Varya means one, who observes certain vows.
** Couch refers to an Audience Hall known as Samosaran.
*** Brought the couch means prepared the Audience Hall.

“It is hard to understand, and I do not attempt to explain, the idealization and the grotesquely extravagant glorification of the Vratya or heretical nomad, who at one time appears to be Supernormal Being endowed, who the attributes of an all-pervading Deity, and at another as a human wanderer in need of food and lodgings.....”

There is no mention of any name in the above quotation but the story fits most beautiful into the frame work of the life of Rsabha deva, Who was undoubtedly only a human wanderer at first and Who in concequence of the observance of vows, became an all-knowing, or metaphorically the all pervading God, and was then attended upon by devas and worshiped by all creatures.

Rsabha in Yajurveda. In Yajurveda we read:

ek:Rok bUnz o`"kHkks j.; fioklkseuqiu?kenk ;k vkflRojp tnsj eVo vkferrsjktfl iznl lrkue~AA

Rsabha is here regarded as an unbreakable ship to cross the ocean of world of miseries.
Religious animosity is responsible for twisting the meanings or omissions of many of these and other such verses from the Vedas now available* words and phrases such as Shishna deva meaning nude figure of yogis, (an equivalent of Gymnosophist) the words which have also been found noted on the seals dug at Mohanjadaro and Harappa, with actual such figure, still abound,. One of the seals bears the sign of bull on its reverse.

*The Vedas now available are not original. Shri Daynand introduced such in them and brought out such editions as he desired them to be and not what actually were. The Original Vedas may be found with the Brahmans of South Carnatica and it is possible that Rsabha’s name as stated in the various reference quoted here may be found. If so, people living in such South Carnatica produce Photostat copies of the ways wherein these references are found and the same shall therefore be of the next edition of his commemoration volume.

Rsabha in Hindu Purans:-

As the Name signifies, Puranas are the old books recognized by the Hindus as being next only to the Vedas. Here and some extracts from the various Puranas, which loudly proclaim that Lord Rsabha was a real man, who founded the Jain religion, and that Jainism existed in pre-Vedic days. It is to be noted that the names of the father and mother of Rsabha are the same in the Jain traditional religious books.

ukHks fulxZ o{;kfe fjeksgs ---fLeUucks/kr~A ukfHkLRotu;Riq=k e:nsO;ka egk|qfrAA _"kHk ikfFkZo Js"BloZ{k=kL; iwoZte~A _"kHkkn~Hkjrks ;Ks ohj% iq=k'krkxzt%AA 6AA lkfHkf"kP;"kZHk% iq=ka egkizozT;;k fLFkr%A fgekg~oa nf{k.ka o"kZ Hkjrk; fuosn;r~AA 6AA

Translation: I shall relate the family of Nabhi; he he flourished in country called Hima; his mother’s name was Maru Devi. Rsabha Defv of the bright radiance was the best of kings and the ancestor of the Ikswaku clan. To Rsabha was born, Bharata, the eldest of the hundred sons, and a great hero. Prompted by the spirit of the word fight, Rsabha Deva gave Hima, which is in the South, to his son Bharata-

The Brahmanada Purana( Hindi) XIV 59-61.

Tr_"kHkks es:nksO;ka p _"kHkkn~Hkjrks—Hkor~A _"kHkks nÙk% Jh iq=ks 'kkyxzkes gfja xr%AA Hkjrkn~Hkkjra o"kZ HkjrkRlqefuLRoHkwr~A Hkjuks nÙky{ehd% 'kkyxzkes gfja xr%AA

Translation: From Maru Devi was born Rsabha. To Rsabha was born Bharata; endowed with Lakshmi, Rsabha attained to Divinity (Nirvana) at Saligram! From Bharata came Bharat-varsa and Sumati, endowed with Lakshmi (Excellence) Bharat attained to Divinity as Shaligram!—The Agneya Purana (Hindi) C. VII-11-12.

fgekg~o;Lrq ;}"kZa ukHks jklhUegkReu%A rL;"kZHkks---HkoRiq=kks e:nsO;ka ekg|qfrA _"kHkkn~Hkjrks ;Ks ohj% ;q=k'krkxzt%AA

Translation: In the land called Hima Rsabha of great brilliance was born to the Great Nabhi from Maru Devi. To Rsabha was born Bharata, the eldest of hundred sons, and a great hero—The Kurma Purana ( Hinnu)- LXI, 37-38.

_"kHkkn~HkjrkS ;Ks ohj% iq=k'krk}j%A Lkks—fHkf"kP;"kZHk% iq=ka egkizkozkT;ekfLFkr% riLrs;s egkHkkx% iqygkJelaJ;%A fgekg~o;a nf{k.ka o"kZa Hkjrk; firk nnkSA rLekrq Hkkjra o"kZa rL; ukEuk egkReu%AA HkjrL;kUoHkwRiq=k lqefrukZa /kkfeZd%A

Translation: Rsabha’s son was Bharata. Rsabha performed the Rajabhisheka (Installation Ceremony) of Bharat, and entered asceticism; and abiding in the vanaprastha stage, the fortunate one performed austerities. The country of Hima, which is to the south, was given to Bharata by his father who came, therefore after his name to be known as Bharta Varsa. Bharat had a virtuous son by name Sumati!

The Markandeya Puran( Hindu) L, 39-41

bRFka izHkko _"kHkks-----orkj'kadL; esA lrkaxfrnhZucUHkquZoe% dfFkrLrouAA _"keL; pfjra fg ij;a ikoua egr~A LoX;Za a ;'kL;ek;q";a JksrO;a p iz;Rur%AA

Translation:Thus will the be the Rsabha incarnation to me, Sankara, which will be the ninth incarnation that will take place like the path for the good people and as a patron of the helpless! The life of Rsabha is exceedingly pure; one should hear the life of Rsabha which is the gift of heaven after death and the case of increase of fame and the length of ones' years—the Siva Purana( Hindu) IV, 47-48.

v"V"kf"BrhFksZ"kq ;k=k;ka Hkwrya Hkosr~A JhvkfnukFkk;nsoL;] Lej.ksukfi rr~iQye~ AA

Translation: The merit that may be acquired by going on pilgrimage to sixty-eight Tirthas ( Holy Palces) is acquired by the mere thinking of God Adinath.

Rsabha Deva! Hindu Adoration (untraced)

Rsabha and the Hindu Trinity: The Hindus have hitherto believed that the people inhabiting this country in the pre-Vedic period were uncivilized. Far from this, for excavation made at Mahanjadaro and Harappa reveal that a civilization several thousand older than the Vedic prevailed here.
And while in the Vedas and the Puranas, Rsabha is mentioned by this very name in pre-Vedic God. Later on, Rsabha came to be known as Brahma, Vishnu and Shanker.
(i) Rasbha and Shiva: In the traditions of the Jains & this tradition is upto this time preserved in Jain iconography*, the sign of the bull is also declared to be the conveyance of Shiva. Again Lord Siva’s abode is said to the Kailash Parvat, while Lord Rsabha is described in Jain books and tradiotions as having performed penance and secured salvation from the same mountain Shiva’s Trishul, the trident**, a symbol of His authority, denotes the Ratan Triya the three jewels—Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right Conduct, which according to Lord Rsabha’s teachings constituted the path to salvation. The river Ganges flowing from His hair signifies the flow of the pure and real knowledge of the Omniscient Lord Rsabha. The serpents and cobras round his neck show the high pitch of meditation attained by him, who did not feel perturbed by the reptiles, when they clung to his person.

*Inconography=( I-ko-nog-ra-fi) n. A description of statues.
** Trident= having three teeth or prongs.

Shiv Linga or Phallus worship: It is at all creditable that a very large number of the people of this country may continue to be so simpleton that they may worship linga and the kundly, or the male and female genital organs in their naked and unabashed forms? No sensible man will believe like that. But then what is the mystery?

The fact is that hero worship and of the places sanctified by the religious leaders, has been a very ancient institution among the people of the world. This was also true of the Jains and the Hindus. In India the practice was started by Bharat Chakravbarty, the son of Rsabha, after whom we call India, Bharat. He did it to perpetuate the memory of his revered father Bhagwan Rsabha’s salvation at the Kailash Mountain. As time rolled on this Ksetra-puja of Kailash, the shape of which resembles a bell or phallus, and also science nudity was the mask of the sainthood of Rsabha, the Kailash-Ksetra-Puja was converted into linga-puja.

Also since Rsabha was the first Yogi, who gained the pure condition of beautitude*called, Shiva-gati, and was therefore known as Savava( Usabha, in the Prakrit language, which got corrupted as Sava)- Rsabha came to be known as Siva.

Some scholars believe that the word Linga is not of Sanskrit origin rather it is a Tibeten word for land. Dar je-ling, which got corrupted into Darjeeling, meaning the thunder’s land, is another example of it. This also confirms that the worship of the Shiv-linga is in fact the Kailash Ksetra-Puja. Also people put a leaking pot full of water over Shiv-Linga. This betokens the rains which continually full on the Kailash mountain.

In the Jain tradition as well Rsabha had been prayed as Siva. Shri Jayasen Acharya pays his homage to Rsabha as Siva(emancipated beautitude). Like wise Shri vira-Sen-Acharya quotes some ancient gathas in Dhavala Tika to define an Arhant as Jina or as One, Who unveils the hidden and spiritual secrets of Jina.
Shri Mantungji also starts in Bhaktamra Stotra that none else but Rsabha is Shiva in the following versa:

Roekekuafr equ;% ijea ifo=k

ekfnfR; o.kZeeya rel% iqjLrkr~A
Roeso lE;xqiyHk; t;an Ek`R;a
ukU;s% f'ko% f'koiuL; equhUnz iaFkk AA

Epigraphical Evidence, Epigraphically the devotees of both Rsabha as and Siva constructed their respective images, which resemble each other, For instance the image of yogiswara Siva from Bijawad, Cewas Distt. In Madhaya Pradesh of the twelfth century A.D. looks like the image of jina -Rsabha in all respect except the scared thread and the ear-rings. Likewise the image of Rsabha found at Sadumar, Jhansi, bears the marks of a trisula and a bull. Besides it there are some images of jinas from South India, which are sculptured in a stone structure made in the shape of linga and kundaly of Shiva. This arcaeological evidence also establishes the Siva in indentical to Rsabha.

Rsabha’s Nirvan day and Shivratri. Rsabha got Shivpad in the night of the magha, hence Shivratri, the night of Shiva festival began to be celebrated in the memory of Rsabha’s nirvana. The famous Vedic book Ishan Samhita also confirms the view that on account of Adideva the Vrat or fasting of Shivratri is to be observed on the fourteenth day of Magha as below:

ek?kd`".k prqjnL;kekfnnsoks ekgfuf'k
f'kokfyxr;ksn~Hkwr% dksfVlw;ZleizHk
rRdkyO;kfiuh Xukg~ek f'kokfyaxczrs frfFk AA

&&&&bZ'kku lafgrk

In Northern India Shivratri is now a days celebrated on the fourteenth day of the later half of phalgun instead of magha and the following verse is refrred to in its support:

ek?keklL; 'ka"ks ;k izFkes QkYxquk; p A
d`".kk prqjn'kh lk rqf'kojkf=k% izdhfZrZrk AA

&&&dky ek?kzoh; ukxj x.M

But even this confirms Shivratri to be on the fourteenth day of the later half of magha and not phalgun. This is clearly a mistake for the word phalgun in the verse, which if it is read carefully speaks not phalgun but prior to phalgun. Thus we see that not only Jains but even Hindus unwittingly* and unconsciously celebrate the nirvana day of the first Jain Tirthankara Rsabha. In Southern India, Shivaratri is however, celebrated in the later half of Magha e.g. both the days are identical.

(ii) Rsabha and Sankara: Sankara is the other name of Siva. The Brahmin author of Siva-Puran calls Rsabha as an incarnation of Sankara in the following verse:

bRFka izHkko _"kHkks&-----orkj% 'kadjk; es A
lrka xfrnhZuca/kquZe% dfFkrLrFkk AA 47AA

Translation: Thus there will be Rsabha incarnation to the Sankara (Siva), which will be the ninth incarnation that will take place like the path for the good people, and as a patron of the helpless!

(iii) Rsabha and Brahma: Hindu Puranas declare the emergence of Brahma, the birth giver, on the lotus flower from the nabhe ( ukHkh½ meaning the navel of Vishnu, while Jain books speak of Rsabha, being the son of Raja Nabha, His mother’s name being Maru Devi.

Rsabha is also mentioned as Brahma in Skanda V Adhya! of Srimad BHagwat Puram( Urdu Hindustan book Depot, Lucknow).

ukHkh jiR;dkeks---izT; es#n~nsO;k Hkxor~
;liq#"k eofbRkkRe---;tr A

*Unwittingly= adv.from wit, unknowingly, not design.

Dr. Ganga Nath Jha’s conclusion also expresses Rsabha to be Brahma. According to him:

“It is an account of Rsabha being the first king and the law-giver that He is regarded as the Creater of the world”

(English Jain Gazette, 1904).

Budhist Scriptures: Budh Acharya Shri Arya Deo has expressly regarded Rsabha as founder of Jaininsm in Satshatra.

Arya Manfushri Mulkapa Calls Rsabha to be free of wordly possessions and as saint like kapila Muni in: 380-391.

dfiy eqfuuke _f"kojk] fuxZaFk rhFkZadj ++_f"kHk fuxzFkZa#fiA

According to the Imperial History of India pp.12-13. Manju Shri Mulkalpa counts not only Rsabha, but also Nabhi and BHarata to be great kings of very ancient age:

t;ks".kh"kLrFkk fl)ks /kqU/keksj u`iksRees AA 388AA
dUniaL; rFkk jkKks fot;ks".kh"k dF;rs A
iztkifrLrL; iq+=kS oS uL;kfi ykspuk Hkqfo AA389AA
iztkirs% lqrks ukfHk rL;kfi v'kZeqT;fr A
ukfHkuks _"kHk iq=kkS oS fl)deZ nz+or% AA390AA
rL;kfi ef.kpjks ;K% fl)ks gSeors fxjkS A
_"kHkL; Hkjr% iq=k lks----fi eU=kku~ rnk tisr~ AA391 AA

vk;eTt& Jh ewydYi

According to the Indian Historical Quarterly Calcutta, Vol. III, page 475, the famous Budh granth Dhammapada in its gatha 422 mentions Rsabha.

Budh acharya, Shri Dharam Kirtiji testifies in Adhaya III of Nyaya Vindu Rsabha to be all-seeing and all-knowing Lord like the 24th Tirthankara, *Shri Vardhman Mahavira at follows:

loZK vkIrksok lT;ksfZrKkukfndeqifn"Voku~ A
;Fkk c`"kHk o/kZekukfrfjfr AA

&&&&U;k;foUn v/;k;

*Shri Mahavira Commemmoration Vol.1, page 18, Vir Vol II, Page 353.

Grantha Sahib of the Sikhs: Shri Guru Govind Singhji Maharaj has also expressly endorsed the views of the Vedas, Puranas, and the Budhist literature by saying that Vishnu Autar Arhant (Rsabha) founded the Saravak Mat viz Jainism.

The word arhant is applied to the Jain Tirthankararas and occurs in the Jian mahamantra. The word saravak (which later on became sarogi) is aaplied to lay the followers of Jainism.

fo'kq.knso vkKk py ikbZ A dky iq[kZ dh djh cM+kbZ AA5AA
` dky iq[kZ rc gq; fn;kykA nkl tku ds opu jlkyk AA6AA
/kj vguZ nso dk :ik A uk'k djks v'kj.k ds Hkwik AA7AA
Rkc vgUrnso cu vk;ksA vku vkSj gh iUFk pyk;ks AA8AA
Jkoder mikjtu fd;kA lUr euksg.k dks lq[k fn;k AA9AA

&&Jh xq# xksfCkUn flag th egkjkt% nlexzaFk lkgc i`"B 175

Rsabha and Adam: Rsabha also known as Adinath, and His successors, were not only known in the Vedic and pre-Vedic periods in India, but alos abroad.

Muslim religious books like miraj ulanbut speak of Adam, who according to the Quran and the Bible was the first and the foremost great-great-grand-father of the human race, being in India. Jain scriptures speak of Adinath, also referred to as Arhant and Adipurash, literally meaning the first man as the person, Who in the early stages of civilization taught mankind about agriculture, cooking, carpentary, smithy, cattle-breeding, three Rs. etc.etc. Rsabha or Adinath might, therefore, be considered as a version of Adam.

Prof. Hajime Nakumara Ph.D. Prof. of Sanskrit studies at the University of Tokyo, Japan, in an article entintled “The sage Rsabha noticed in the Chinese versions of Budhists scriptures” published in the Voice of Ahimsa of Vol. VII, March-April, 57, writes:

“The stage Rsabha, the first Tirthankara of the Jains is noted occasionally in the Chinese versions of Budhist scriptures. He is known even to the Japanese under the modified name of Rsabha, through the Chinese version.”

The learned professor quotes the first Chapter of the Chinese version of the Sat-Shastra by Arya deva, the Sanskrit original of which, according to him, was lost:

“Kapila Uluka(Kanada) and Rsabha etc., these sages are called Bhagwat….omitted. The disciples of Rsabha recite the scriptures of the Nirgathas. They say as follow:

“To practise self-mortification such as to expose one’s self to the five fires, and to pluck out one’s hair and so on should be regarded as meritorious”( Taisho Tripataka Vol. XXX pages 1684).

The status of “Reshef” or naked ‘Apollo-Rashef’ in Greece and Phonecia are considered by scholars as representing the Indian Rsabha.*

*Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute Vol.XIV pp.16-32 & V.O.A. VIII pp. 346-350.

Epigraphical evidence: We have also the epigraphical evidence, chiefly the Mathura inscriptions, dealt with by Dr. Further, which shows that there are dedications, dealt with by Dr. Further, which shows that there are dedications and offerings of a very ancient date made to Rsabha which bear clear testimony to His real personality.

Certain ancient scales from Mahanjadaro and Harappa finds many also be referred to in this connection. Nudity, posture of the body and the figures engraved on them as well as the actual readings of these seals bearing such words as “Jinayanand Maha” and “Rsabha Nama” revealed that the first Jain Tirthankara Rsabha was worshipped in Sind some five thousand years ago.

In this connection it is interesting to note that though many objects of interest were found in the excavations, no weapons of offence or defence or protective ramparts or fortifications were found there from which it may be presumed that Jain culture prevailed in Sind and the Southern Punjab some five thousand years ago. Commenting on this Shri T.N. Ram Cahndran M.A. F.R.A.s. Jt. Director-General of Archaeology in a brochure* points out:

“The most monumental products of the Indus Civilisation aresome sculptures. Thirteen pieces of statutory, including two well-known and much discussed stone statuettes from Harappa, have so far come to light….with senses controlled by effort, with strength and creative activity restrained metaphysiacally by the silken thread of Ahimsa and with physical features(limbs) completely abandoned to the rigoures of clim and weather in the pistine**and natal***state of absolute nudity, the colossal statues of the Ialn Tirthankaras and Jain ascetics such as of Bahubali at Sravanbelgola in mysore, have a lesson to humanity that non-violence is the only +panacea for human sufferings. The Harappan statuette being exactly in the above specified pose, we may not be wrong in identifying the God represented as Tirthankara or a jain ascetic of accredited fram and penance......

*Marshall, Mohanjadaro, London, 1931, Vol 1, page 78.
**Pristine= Original; primitive.
***Natal=native, pertaining to birth.It is said that Lord shiva and that seals resembling those of the Indian valley”in all important details” were recently discovered in South east Russia. If so the provinance of the Indus Valley civilization is now extended to a northern area which scholars appear to have had no conception.

Panacea = (Pen-a-sia) n. a universal medicine.

The chronology* and heirchy** of the series of 24 Jain Tirthankaras do not stand in the way of the date of Harappa statuette….of the present list of Tirthankaras, we know that Mahnavira was a contemporary of Budha, who flourished in the 6th Century B.C. Parsvanatha, the 23rd, flourished more than hundred years before Mahavira, and Neminatha, the 22nd Tirthankara, was a cousin of Lord Krishan….so that even on a rough computation we get the date like the 9th century B.C. for Neminatha… We have yet to account for 21 Tirthankaras that preceded Neminatha in a hierarchical order.If we push back the dates proportionately to each Tirthankara we are led to find that the first Tirthankara Adinath, also called Vrsabha Deva, satnds on the last quarter of the third millinium B.C. The statauette under description has been assigned by critics a date between 2400-2000 B.C.

There is even an old inscription in the Khandagiri Hill in which there is a mention of a consecrated*** statue of Rsabha that had been carried off by King Nanda Vardhana obout 2400 years ago and and that was brought back to Kalinga ( Orrissa) by Kharvel in the 2nd Century B.C. from Patli-Putra(modern Patna). This statue most probably dated back prior to Mhavira’s time and possibly even to that of Bhagwat Parswa Nath.

Jain traditions, however, assign the age of Rsabha just after the stone Age or the beginning of the Agriculture age.

*Chronology=n. the science of dates.

** Hierarchy= Persons who rule in sacred matters.

***Consecrate= v.t. To set apart for a holy use; to make sacred; to dedicate; to render venerable.

While Bharat whose name appeared in the previous quotations was the elder son of Rsabha, his younger son’s name was Bahubali, who also renounced the world and attained salvation. A colossal statue of about 72 feet was covered and set up at Sarvan belgola in Mysore State in 1028 A.D. by the order of Chamunda Raya, a minister of Rajmala II, the King of Ganga Dynasty, who ruled some parts of the Mysore State. This shows that as early as 1028A.D. the names of Shri Bahubali and his father lord Rsabha were revered. Images dating both earlier and later have been excavated from several places.

Jain Temples and Caves: There are so many thousands of new temples of Rasbha and other Tirthankaras of jains all over India that it is difficult to mention even a brief history of each of them. These temples alone are sufficient to convince the scholar of the historicity of Lord Rsabha and his Successors.

First of all Bharata, the son of Lord Rsabha is said to have built a very beautiful temple at Kailash.The Jain ministers Tejpal and Vastupal had erected at Mount Abu such graceful temples, which are one of the minor wonders of the world and are a source of inspiration and joy for ages to come. One of these temples contains very attractive image of Rsabha. Elora caves temples are peculiar specimen of Art, where Indra Gumpha Temple has a very beautiful image of Rsabha. Chitor, which is famous for the valour of Maharana Paratap and sacrifice of his Jain minister Bhamashah has a pillar of glory 80 ft.high in the memory of Rsabha. The history and monuments of Gwalior fort and the largest of them is a standing image of Adinath or Rsabha come 57 ft. high. At Dipamgudi in the district of Tanjore in Madras State there is a very old image of Shri Rsabha which is stated to have been worshipped by Lava and Kusha the twin sons of Shri Ramchandra and Sitaji.
The attractive image at Kashariaji is so miraculous that any which devoutly and faithfully entertained by a man, finds it fulfillment in no time, for which not only Jains but non-Jains also come from all parts of India for pilgrimage.

Thus we see that Hindus, Brahmins Budhists and Sikhs all unanimously declare Rsabha to be the founder of Jainism, a view which is corborated by epigraphical evidence.

After Lord Rsabha, or Adinatha:-- After Lord Rsabha, or Adinatha there were twenty three great Reformers of Jainism.The names of the twenty four Tirthankaras and their cognizance are as under:

1. Rsabha Deva or Adinatha( Bull). 2. Ajitnatha( Elephant).
3. Abhinandanatha(Monkey). 4. Sambhavnatha(Horse).
5. Sumatinatha(Chakwa, a bird). 6. Padmaprabhu(Lotus).
7. Suparshannatha(Swastika). 8. Chandaprabha (Crescent).
9. Suvidhinatha or Pushpa Deva (Crocoidile). 10. Shitalnatha (Kalpvrikshe).
11. Shreyansnatha (Gend). 12. Vashpujya (He- Buffalo).
13. Vimalnatha (Boar). 14. Anantnatha (Porcupine).
15. Dharamnatha (Vajra). 16. Shantinatha (Stag).
17. Kunthnatha (He-Goat). 18. Aranatha (Fish).
19. Masllinatha (Kalash, a port). Bull). 20. Muns-suvrata (Tortoise).
21. Neminatha (Lotus). 22. Aristnemi (Conch).
23. Parshavanatha (Cobra). 24. Vardhmana Mahavira (Lion).

The Successors of Lord Rsabha did not preach anything new. They simply re-establishd and revived Dharma, which by lapse of time had become dim.

They belong to the time when there was no paper to write on; the scanty information we have about Them being inherited through traditions and Their brief stories were recorded on Tarpatras much after the last one of them Viz. Lord Mahavira lived.

According to Dr. Ganga Nath Jha M.A. D.Litt, Vice-Chancellor, Allhabad University:
"Like the other Tirthankaras Bhagwan Subhadinath( Or Pushpadantaji) , the ninth after Bahrata on seeing that the people had lost their hold upon its true tents rejuvenated the Jain religion. Some of the Brahmans, hoever, did not listen to him and struck out a different path for themselves. It was a disorted version of the four Vedas in which they put in injuctions about animal sacrifices and other things abnoxious to Jaininsm. The original Vedas are said to be still known among the Brahmans of the South Carnatic. In these it is shown that true Sacrifice does not consist in slaughtering animals but in an act in which self is the sacrifice, Penance-the Fire,True knowledge-the sacrificial gifts, and knowledge, philosophy and good conduct the Vedic Triad."*

( English Jain Gazzette, Oct.1904)

Not the least significant is the reference in the yoga Vasista (XV-1) to Jainism; where Rama who according to the Jain tradition flourished in the times of Lord himself says:

Ukga jkek u es okaNk Hkos"kq up es eu% A
'kkUr vkflrqfePNkfe LokReuho ftuks ;Fkk AA

Transalation:- I am not Ram(object of worship) , nor am I free from desires; I wish to attain, in mine own self the tranquility of the Jina ( Conqueror i.e. Tirthankara.)

This shows that Jainism was flourished at the time of Rama, which is very old and ancient according to Hindu reckoning.