LITERARY CONTIBUTION OF THE JAIN MONKS
The Jain Religious preceptors, saints and scholars have rendered remarkable services to the nation as
well as to the world by their fofty character and ennobling composition of the English language, one
cannot afford to neglect the master-pieces of Shakespeare or Milton in the same way the literary
composition of the Jain Acharyas cannot be ignored due to the fact that their study in indispensable
for the knowledge of Kannada and other languages.
(Shri S.C. Diwakar Nayattiarillia B.A. , LL.B.Scori, C.P) “No Indian vernacular,” wrote Mr. Lewis Rice. “ contains a richer or more varied mine of indigenous literature than Jain Works. Jain wrote on all subjects, such as Religion , Ethics, Grammar, prosody, Medicine and even on natural Sciences, Astronomy and Mathematics. Out of 280 poets no less that 95 are Jain poets. Virasaiva or Lingayat poets come to next being 90 where as the Brahmanical writers are only 45 and the rest all included 50.
The interest in Jain Literature evinced both by rulers as well as their ministers ;and generals is amply
indicated by works such as the Prsonttra Ratan Malika by Amoghvarsa of Rastrakuta, Nanartha Ratan Malika
by Trugapa Dandanayak of Vijayanagara and the Chamudraya Purana by Chamudraya, Minister and
General of Mero
Singha and Racamalla Ganga, but here we shall deal with the works contributed by Jain Monks only.
Shri Kund Kundacharya: Shri Kunda Kundacharya is by far the earliest, the best known and most important of all Jain writers. This is indicated by the fact the after Lord Mahavira and Gautam Gandhara. It is Kund Kunda whose name is taken with great honour and respect. An inscription at Sravan belgola syas:
“The Lord of ascetics. Kund Kunda was born through the great fortune of the world. In order to show that
he was nor touched in the least, both written and without by dust (Parsions) the Lord of ascetics left
the earth, the abode of dust and moved from inches above .” His most important works are; I Samaysara II
Parvachansar III Niyasara IV Rayanasara V. Panchstikaya VI Astapahuda and Bhavamokha.
Umaswami. Umaswsami also called Umaswatia flourished in A.V. 714-798 ( 135-219 A.D). He was the most famous disciples of Shri Kund Kundacharya which fact is established by inscription no: 108 of 1305 Saka Samant found at Sarvananbelgola (Mysore State)
1. Tattvarthiadhigama Sutra 2.
Bhasya on the same.
3. Puja Prakarana.
4. Jambudwipa Samasa, Parsa Marati.
Tarttvarithiadhigama Sutra. Justice J.L. Jaini of sacred memory Prof. Hiralala and in fact all the Jain scholars call this sutra a treatise on the essential principal of Jainism as Bibliotheca Jainica or the Bible of Jainism. It enjoys the distinction of being regarded an authoritative work by all the sections of the Jains. There is no part of Jani Philosophy which is not embodied in this sacred epitome. Like the Ramayana of Hindu, the Quran of the Muslim, the Bible of the Christians and the end Avestha of the Parsees, it is recited every day in the Jain temples and in thousands of Jain houses.
Samantbhadra: Samantbhadra, in Saravan belgola inscsription is described as one whose sayings are an adamantine goad of the elephant, the disputant and by whose power the whole earth was rid of even the talk of false speakers. That he must have been a great disputant is also indicated by the title Vadi Mukha given to him in the Anekanta Jayapataka by Shri Haribhadra, a Swatembre writer. He powerfully manintained the Doctrine of Syadavada intresting corroboration of which may be famed in the instance of Vimla Chandra who is said to have put up a notice at the gae of the place of Satrubha Yankara challenging the Sarvas, in disputation . The advent of this great writer is rightly considered to mark and epoch of not only Digambera & Swetambra history, but also in the whole Sanskrit Literature.
His well-known work is Ratan Karnad Sarvakachar,which means jewels Casket of layman’s conduct. His words are admitted as pious and powerful as those of Lord mahavira. He also wrote several other books like:
1. Aptaminiansa. 2.
Jina Stule-Staka and 3.
Svayambhu Sutra etc. Pujyapada. Pujyapada, also called Devanadi, was a very eminent shcoler of philosophy, Logic , Medicine and Literature-Pujyapada, meaning one whose feet are adorable, appears to have been a mere title which can be acquired because forest dities worshipped his feet. He is also called Jinendra Bhudi on account of his great learning. He most famous works Jinendravya Vyakarana or Grammar of Jinendra-budhi is well-known. Panchvastka , the best Commentary on Jinendra is also supposed to be the work of Pujyapada. Panuri Sabdvatara is another work on Grammar traditionally considered to be a Commentary on Punini grammar ;by Pujyapada. Vopadeva counts it among the authorities on the Sanskrit Grammar. He also wrote Kalayankarka a treatise on medicine long contined to be an authority on the subject. The treatment it prescribed is Entirely Vegetarian and non-alcoholic.
Pujyapada Pujyapada, also called Devanadi, was a very eminent shcoler of philosophy, Logic , Medicine and Literature-Pujyapada, meaning one whose feet are adorable, appears to have been a mere title which can be acquired because forest dities worshipped his feet. He is also called Jinendra Bhudi on account of his great learning. He most famous works Jinendravya Vyakarana or Grammar of Jinendra-budhi is well-known. Panchvastka, the best Commentary on Jinendra is also supposed to be the work of Pujyapada. Panuri Sabdvatara is another work on Grammar traditionally considered to be a Commentary on Punini grammar; by Pujyapada. Vopadeva counts it among the authorities on the Sanskrit Grammar. He also wrote Kalayankarka a treatise on medicine long contined to be an authority on the subject. The treatment it prescribed is Entirely Vegetarian and non-alcoholic. Pujyapada was a triple doctor (Ph. D;D. Litt. M.D) . He was not only a highly learned thinker but was also a great saint whose feet celestial beings worshipped with great devotion.
His Sarvatha Sidhi is an elaborate commentary on the Tattvartha Sutra of Uma swami. His Upasakacara is a hand book of ethics for he Jain laity.
Akalanka. Akalnka is classed among the Nayajayakar or great logician. He is said to have challenged the Budhist at the court of King Mastimalla (Himasitala) of Kanchi,saying that the defeated party should be ground in oil mills. The Budhists were driven to Ceylon owning to the Victory of this Jain teacher.
This vocorius logic of Akalanka made his name proverbial as a Bhattakulanka in logic. His most famous is the Tatuarthavartika Vyakliyalankara.
Jinsena. Jinsena who by his propogation increased the power of the Jain sect, was a celebrated Jain author. He was the king of poets. Commanded Adipuran which there are instances of all meters and figure. He also wrote Mahapuran which is a very nice historical work. He has also written Parsvabhudaya considered to be one of the curiosities of Sanskrit Literature. It is at once the product and mirror of the literary taste of the age. Universal Judgement assigns the first place among Indian poets to Kalidas, but Jinsena claims to be considered a higher genins than the author of the Cloud Messenger. The story relating to the origin of parasvabhyndaya is to interesting to be omitted . Kalidasa, came to Bankapura priding over the production of his Meghduta. Being instigated by Vinayasena, Jinesana told Kalidasa that he had pirated the poem from some ancient writer, when challenged by Kalidasa to prove his statement Jinasena pretended that the book referred to was at a great against distance and could be got only after eight days. Then he came out with his own Parsvabhyndaya the last line of each verse in which was taken from Kalidasa. The latter is said to have been confounded by this but Jinasena finally confessed his whole trickery .
Some Deva: Soma Deva wasthe most learned writer “what makes his works of every great importance obserbes Dr. Hira Lal, are bearing of the author while they display and the masterly style in which they are composed.” The prose of Vasasblaka was with that of Bava and poetry at places with that of Megha. According to Peterson Somadeva’s work Yasasblaka is in itself a true poetical merit which nothing but the bitterness of theological hatred would have excluded so long from the list of the classes of India. In the words of Peterson,
“ It represents a lively picture of India and well absorbed intellectual energies of all thinking men. The last part entitled Uuasakadhyanam divided into 46 chapters in a handbook of popular introductions on Jain doctrine and devotion. His work of considerable interest is Niti Vakyamtra which is almost modelled on Kautilya’s Arathshastra.
Indeed it is a certificate to the universality of a Jain writer. These writers were historic persons, who excercised tremendous influence in their own days.