The universe is the effect of an intelligent cause Soul, whose nature is to know and the five unintelligent
causes viz Matter, Space, Time and the two things which act respectively as the means by which resting thing
rests and moving thing moves.
It is not believed that these six causes created the world, at some particular time, they exist, have existed and shall exist for ever and by their changing conditions and interactions cause the world to be what it is. There are always two causes in any event—unsubstancial or instrumental cause determining water, the substancial cause of event, called boiling. Each of the above named six realities—Intelligent-being or Soul, Space, Time, Matter and other coming under the heading ‘Field and Aether are both the substancial and unsubstancial causes each has the power of originating new states and destroying old ones; keeping itself permanent. This power is not a separate entity existing outside the realities, it is inherent in each and is inseparable from them. No extra- cosmic individual creates, controls and destroys this power; it is an attribute of each by these six substances.
1) Jiva-asti-kaya (Soul) is that substance whose characteristic Chetna or consciousness, awareness and knowledge. “I think therefore I am.” Declared Descartes. “I am therefore I think.” Said Max-muller.
2) Pudgala-asti-kaya. (Matter) is that substance the nature of which is such that its qualities of colour etc., increase and decrease. Here the real substance is the atom—the ultimate indivible atom—the ultimate atom is minute, it is permanent and has divisible and has no element which is present in all substances that every atom of an have called Proton and Electron etc., identified as positive and negative electricity respectively. The different properties of the due elements of Gold, Iron, Oxygen etc., have been proved to be due to the different numbers and positions of Electrons and Protons of which the element is made up. According to this theory which has established the truth of Jain Metaphysics beyond any doubt.
3) Dharm-asti-kaya. Fish cannot float without the medium of water; birds cannot fly without the medium of air the magnetic waves which travel long distances even in areas where there is no air? They pan through water , mountains, metal sevens and even upto the Stars and the Sun. The modern analogue of the medium of motion is aether; which satisfies all the attributes of Dharma as explained by Jain Metaphysics. So the substance which is accompanying cause of moving things and beings, is called Dharm-asti-kaya. This cause is necessary for the motion, vibration would also be explained by this substance. The Dharma substance does not, it should be noted, compel any Jiva or Pudgala, Spirit and Matter to move, but it only assists them in their movement when they have the tendency to move.
4) Adharm-asti-kaya. Is the accompanying cause of stationary objects and beings which are not moving or which are resting in the sense of not moving if there is a medium of motion, one can easily conceive that there must be a medium of rest too. In modern scientific parlance this is called Field through which the binding forces operate.
5) Akash-asti-kaya (Space) is that substance which acts as a receptacle of all other substances. Without Akash nothing can exist independently of another. It is due to Akash that every thing finds its own place.
Let us now suppose the empty within a room to be Akasha and the substances Dharma and Adharma etc., existing within it to be like lights of different lamps. Just as the space in a room can be fielled up by these lights which intermingle and penetrate the space, in the same manner, Akasha allows other substances to penetrate it and co-exist within it. The great astronomer Prof. A. S. Eddington is right when he says
“We must rid our minds of the idea that the worlds ‘space’ in science has anything to do with void. The physicists does not conceive of space as void, where it is empty, there is still aether.”
6) Kaal-asti-kaya (Time) kaal is also a substance like Dharma and Adharma. Why should things change, newness or oldness, a succession of events at all? All these are due to the substance called kala-time. It is positive substance which occasions all changes and brings about the idea of time to us. just as the peg under a potters wheel exists in the movement of wheel without compelling it two move similarly time, according to Jainism, assists the changes produced in the substances, though it does not perforce compel them to change. The time substance is, of course, invisible to human eyes but the Arhant, the Adept with omniscient knowledge see it.
Newton regarded Time, Space, and Matter as independent entities. The Jain view widely differs from this but agrees completely with that of Einstein who regards time as a separate entity but inseparably mixed with space.