SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE IN JAINISM
The world of today has become so fastidious that it will not credit anything unless it conforms reason.
Nothing will be acceptable; the truth of it cannot be verified by means of an experiment; a telescope or a
microsupe. A true religion, if is to be sincerely believed, must be scientific.
The Jain point of view regarding the universe, as expounded by its great teachers, is wholly scientific. It does not believe that anything outside being, however mighty, created the universe out of nothing and will at some remote time annihilate it to nothingness. This is impossible , this view in unscientific , for nothing can be created nor anything that exists, can ever be completely destroyed. What we see in our daily life is simply the change in form, and not mater which remains as it is. A wax candle when it is unused in solid form with some definite colour, from and occupying a certain space but when brunt out nothing appears to be left. This is a wrong idea, matter is there, simply it has now taken a different from and name. The candle is now turned into Hydrogen and Carbon. The furniture in your house was something in the form of a tree. In the scientific parlance this principle is known as the ‘Law of Indestructibility of Matter’ or ‘ Conservation of Energy’. Also what Sir J.C. Bose proved through some very delicate and sensitive apparatus such as an Optical Liner, Resonant Recorder and Magnetic Crescograph , which made visible the growth of plants, the pulse of their hearts , the twitching of their tissue, the process of their digestion and also that plants are more sensitive that even human beings; that than animals do; that they suffer convulsion of pain when they react to a passing cloud, or a whisper of breeze more readily than animals do, that they suffer convulsion of when wounded have their own movements of fatigue languidness and death, was declared by Jain Apostles several thousands years before the Christian ear, nay even before the Vedas and Upnishads were conceived. The Jain teachers joined this knowledge through intutition. They even went further and declared that atomic or invisible beings like the smallest particles of the elements of earth, the fire, the water, and air had life. The above it quite in agreement with Bose’s researches who proved that “inert and living bodies have much in common; even metals suffers from fatigue and can be poisoned.” This theory, however , it should be understood, is quite different from the animistic belief of the existence of spirits in stones, trees, books etc. according to which these objects have to be propitiated with bloody sacrifices. The Jain belief is that life or soul, in whatever form it may be, is everywhere; is sacred and as it is moving towards the same goals, it is not to be disturbed o disnitegerated by any kind of violence.
Now the question is, can fire have life? If so, what sort of life or soul it has? Well , having hitherto failed to release out own souls we can hardly know what sort of souls, water, fire and air have. According to Jainism it is only the Omniscient Lords who can perceive them. One thing, however, appears very probable that life or soul can exist under all conditions. This becomes at least vaguely certain when we remember that plants can exist in hot environments.
The HindustanTimes of the 22nd Feb. 1961 reads:-
Plant grows in hot water: A rare plant believed to be the only one of its kind in world known as ‘ fer medium’ was found to be growing in the hot water strem in a temperature of 80 F in the Bhim bund near Monghyr. Botanists who came across the plant in course of their excursion in the forest fast week, said the plant had a luxuriant growth despite the high temperature of the water.
Dr. Pat Clarke, of University College London, once said, “Some extra-ordinary bacteria have been found living in hot springs in an American desert in temperature of 92 C- almost hot enough to boil an egg.
(Hindustn Times 29-1-1967)Not following the other systems of thought but leaving its own ideas on several problems; the Jain account of sound is a physical concept, while all other systems of thoughts spoke of sound as a quality of space, Jainism explains sound in relation with material particles. To prove this scientific thesis, the Jain thinkers employed arguments which are now generally found in the text books of Physics.
These laymen who are sceptical about the physical nature of sound or noise are referred to a news item dated 29-11-1959 in the Hindustan Times which reads:
Light from noise: The invention of a device , which is said to make electricity from noise; was announced by the Head of a small Electronics Firm at a press conference in Florida.
Mr. Eugene Russell, president of the Electronic Development Company of Thampa, said that the firms’ new invention culd replace the generator in a motor car.
Mr. Russell said that the device called a ‘phono-power’ element , could convert car noise to furnish enough power to handle lights, air conditions- everything your car uses except the power to start it.
Explaining ‘Phono-power’ He said, “We have always known that noise had energy. Such things as a singer’s voice shattering a wine glass across the room showed that. But we never had ways to measures the energy.
Mr. Russell claimed that his firm could “Produce enough power to light a city” by building a sound proof room and making a noise maker in it and harnessing electricity through using Phone-power unit.
(Hindustan Times 29-11-1959)
Seeing Sound. The crow, it has been grudgingly conceded doth sing as sweetly as the lyric when neither is attended. The time may come very soon when the crow will be thought to sing of either the crow or the lark will change. The reason will be a possible change in our mode of appreciation. Thanks to the effort of Mr. Frederick Judd, and electronic engineer of South Woodford, London, shakes of sound may soon be commonly filmed in colour. Music will not only be heard but seen also. We may be in a position to know with a measure of certainty how much sweeter precisely are unherard melodies than heard.
Mr.Judd, it seems, has prepared coloured prints of verifying cycles. The sound- shapes ahve been described as weird. “Creating an impression of great three dimensional depth and many range from solf purple to a sharp, glaring orange colour.” To obtain their pictures, Mr. Judd explains, sounds are sent from an audio signal generator or from magnetic tape into an ordinary cathode-raytube from a television set, filters for colour are introduced and the camera focused on the screen. It is not necessary, it seems, to film the sound-shapes; they might be introduced direct on a television screen from an ordinary type recorder.
>(Hindustan Times 9-3-1961)The above is about noisy sound,silent sound can work more wonders. It can perform surgery, locate oil deposits and cul diamonds according to an article in a recent issue of the Baltimore Institute of Radio Engineering’s magazine Baltimore Maryland Oct. 14, 1962 Reuter.
Sound pitched too high for the human ear to detect, known as ultra-sound, can also give beer just the right amount of foam wash the dinner dishes and make nylon stockings which are warm in winter and cool in summer. Silent Sound has been use to homogenize milk and age whisky is minutes. It can break up tough meat and vegetable fibres without changing its colour and taste of the foods.
The basis for ultra-sonics technology is the fact that sound whether avoidable or not travels in waves as a form of energy through air water and other conductors. The higher the pitch or frequency of sound, the faster it vibrates the air and the noise force it as. This is new technology permits surgeons to diagnose cancers and tumours with silent echoes, similar to the visual images of X-Rays and use ultra-sonic scalpels which can destroyed diseased and brain tissue without harming surrounding cells.
Other uses envisaged are remote television control devices which operate without wires, batteries or physical connection to the set & ultra- sonically produced cosmetic creams. Silent sound in the unheard industrial revolution which will be heavily felt in future.
Electricity from bacteria: A biological fuel cell which can supply low cost power has been devised in the U.S.A. The cell can supply electricity to keep the raded going for many years. In side the 12 plastic containers are powdered brown rich husks, water and bacteria. As the bacteria feed on the husks, thy decomposes and emit electricity. This electricity is harnessed by Copper and Almunium strips inside the bottles which serve as anodes and cathodes respectively for the wires atop the bottles.
(Patriot Nov. 24, 1963)The question is: How can music shatter a wine glass? Or noise produces electricity or sound may not only be heard but also be seen or filmed or how can bacteria produce electricity without being something physical in nature?
What about Energy? Energy unlike matters has no mass and volume but it has been shown by modern scientists that matter and energy are interchangeable. The relationship of matters and energy as given by the following equation, was practised by Albert Einstein in 1905; E=mc 2
Where E represent energy, m is the volme of matter and c is the velocity of light . (c=3x10 10 Cm/Sec).
Note that if energy appears, some matter disappears. If some energy disappears, must appear in its place. This was demonstrated by the explosions of Atomic & Hydrogen Bombs.
The main divisions of energy are: a Mechnical Energy b Heat Energy, c Sound Energy, d Light Energy, e Magnetic Energy, F Electric Energy.
A student of science, if he reads the Jain treatment of matter will be surprised to find away corresponding ideals-the indestructibility of matter, the conception of atoms and molecules and matter and the view that heat light sound etc are just modifications of matternotions that are common in Jainism and modern science. Most probably the development of mercury vapour turbines in America is the outcome of the description of mercury. Vapour engines occurring in ancient Jain works lke the Samarangan Sutradher ( lejkax.k lw=k/kkj) . Not only in America, but also in Germany an attempt was made to replace petrol engines by mercury vapour engines in the aeroplanes. The translation of Surya Pragyapati) ( lw;Z iztkifr). a standard Jain work on Astronomy into the German Language has elicited high admiration in the west.
Gommat Sar ( xkseV`V lkj) mentions the shape of a parmanu (ijek.kq) as hexagonal. A free Parmanu can travel with maximum velocity of 14 rajjus per samaya, the unit of time i.e. it can shoot from one corner of the universe to the other in one Samaya, provided it does not suffer any collision. This is maximum velocity possible in nature. Just an according to Einstein, the velocity of light is limit. Act each successive collision the velocity is reduced. The maximum age of a star is given as a little more than one Palya (=4’13x10 46 years) showing that in the life cycle of star there are stages of infancy, puberty, old age and death corresponding to the modern idea of the evolution of a star. The modern view is that it starts its career in the form of cold cosmic dust, gradually and steadily contracts and heats upto a very high temperature, flares up as a noval or a super noval giving out enormously bright light, leaves a residue , called a white dwarf star which is dark and thus disappears from View.
The theory of infinite numbers as it is dealt in Lok Prakasa, which corresponds with the modern mathematical theories and the Theory of Indentity of Time and Space are the problems, which are most discussed by the scientists owning to the Einsten Theory, are already solved or prepared for solution in Jain Metaphysic. Many more such idea will be found dispersed in Jain literature in general. Something these ideas do not agree with those of Modern Science, but this is immaterial; for the modern scientific ideas are not absolute, they are ever –changing and who knows that may at last agree with Jain ideas. It is in this connection well to remember the words of Dr. Schubring of Hamburg University, Germany, which he spoke on the 13th January, 1928 during the course of a lecture delivered at Delhi.
He, who has a thorough knowledge of structure of the world, cannot but admire the inward logic and harmony of Jain idea. Hand in hand with the refind cosmographical ideas goes a high standard of Astronomy & Mathematics. A history of Indian Astronomy is not conceivable without the famous Surya Pragyapti. Existence of mycroscopic orginisms is also known to Jain thinkers who technical them Sukshma Ek indrya Jivas or mute organisms with a sense of touch alone.
The Jain views on Soul Transmigration and Clairvoyance have fully been vindicated through experimental researches by the Physical Research Society as quoted elsewhere in this book under the head ‘Soul’.